A guidance and 'affirmations of that which came before it'Written by Mohammad Hashim Kamali
The phrase nuzul al-Quran (revelation of the Quran) is taken from the Quran itself, proclaiming God Almighty's affirmation that "We have indeed revealed this (Quran) in the Night of Power — Laylat al-Qadr".
The rest of this short chapter (No. 108) of only five verses describes the Night of Power, a night during the month of Ramadan wherein came the Angels and the archangel Gabriel bringing down the Quran.
The Quran was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) over a period of 23 years, but here it is said that the Quran was revealed in a single night — believed to be in the last 10 nights of Ramadan — signifying two instances of revelation, one from the Preserved Tablet (al-lawh al-mahfuz) when the Quran was sent to the nearest heaven, and from there the Prophet began to receive it piecemeal.
This is the phenomenon of graduality (tadarruj, also tanjim) that becomes a characteristic feature of the Quranic studies, side by side with others, such as Tajwid (incantation), Asbab al-Nuzul (occasions of revelation), Tafsir (commentary) and others.
The Quran is the world's most widely read book, and also written about, translated in all languages known to Muslims.
The Quran has a chapter titled Al-Qalam (the pen, Ch. 68) — the ubiquitous emphasis the Quran places on knowledge ('Ilm) gave Islam the reputation of a "literary religion". The Prophet of Islam had no miracle other than the Quran. It raised the Arabic language beyond precedent.
It is written in dense and highly allusive elliptical speech, neither poetry nor prose, but unique in its own genre and style.
Muslims often say that when they read the Quran in a translation, they feel that very little of the beauty of the Arabic text is conveyed. The monumental Tafsir works represent a continuing feature of the Quranic knowledge throughout the ages, and it comes in numerous genres.
The earliest is the one based on valid precedent, known as Tafsir bi'l-Ma'thur, such as the renowned Tafsir al-Tabari by Abu Ja'far ibn Jarir al-Tabari (d. 923), that explains the text by the sayings and precedents of the Prophet and his Companions; Tafsir al-Kashshaf (also known as Tafsir al-Ma'ani) by Abul-Qasim Mahmud al-Zamakhshari (d. 1144) that expounds the words, idioms and literary features of the text; Tafsir al-Kabir by Fakhruddin al-Razi (d. 1210) that is strong in interpretation from the Sufi and spiritual viewpoints.
Quranic teachings are focused on belief in God, prophethood, man and the universe, the hereafter, disputation with disbelievers and hypocrites, historical narratives, the earth and its natural environment.
Major Quranic principles include the vicegerency of humans in the earth, building the earth and a just social order therein, justice, promoting good and preventing evil, charity, faith and morality, purity of character, and environmental care.
The Quran is distinguished by its pluralistic outlook on human communities; it is cognisant of the validity of previous revelations, and mentions that there is guidance and light in the revealed books preceding the Quran, and designates itself as an "affirmations of that which came before it".
The Quran consists of 114 chapters and 6,235 verses of unequal length. There are chapters titled al-Insan (the human being), al-Mu'minun (the faithful), al-Anbiya (the prophets), al-Kafrun (disbelievers), al-Shams (sun), al-Layl (night), al-Fajr (dawn), al-'Asr (time), al-An'am (animals), al-Naml (the ant), al-Nahl (honey bee), al-Fil (elephant), al-Tin (fig tree), al-Shura (consultation) and Al-Balad (city).
The longest is al-Baqarah (Ch. 2:286 verses) and the shortest, Kawthar (a water pool in Paradise), that consists of only three verses (Ch. 108).
The text was revealed in Makkah and Madinah, 85 chapters were revealed in Makkah in over 12 years of the Prophet's mission, and the remainder in 10 years after his migration (Hijrah) in Madinah. These mark two distinctive phases in the style and contents of the Holy Book.
The Makki Quran consists of short and concise sentences yet intense in their appeal to the hearts and minds of its readers. It is devoted to the essentials of belief, morality and enlightenment, fighting the hard crusts of Ignorance (Jahiliyyah), idolatry and tribalism.
Reports indicated that many prominent individuals embraced Islam after listening to passages from the Quran. The Medinese parts of the Quran are serene by comparison and pay attention to other subjects, such as war and peace, commerce, family, marriage, divorce, inheritance and interfaith relations.
Mohammad Hashim Kamali is founding chief executive officer of the International Institute of Advanced Islamic Studies Malaysia.
Published in: The New Straits Times, Thursday 29 April 2021